How to test machines (snap/2.9/CLI)

2.9 3.0
DEB CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI
SNAP CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI

How to upload hardware test scripts

To upload a hardware testing script to MAAS, enter the following:

maas $PROFILE node-scripts create name=$SCRIPT_NAME name> \
 script=$PATH_TO_SCRIPT type=testing

Changing the type to commissioning adds the test script to the commissioning process.

You can list all uploaded scripts with the following command:

maas $PROFILE node-scripts read type=testing filters=$TAG

The optional filters argument lets you search for tags assigned to a script, such as using TAG=cpu with the above example.

A script’s metadata, and even the script itself, can be updated from the command line:

maas $PROFILE node-script update \
 $SCRIPT_NAME script=$PATH_TO_SCRIPT comment=$COMMENT

The JSON formatted output to the above command will include ‘history’ dictionary entries, detailing script modification times and associated comments:

"history": [
    {
        "id": 40,
        "created": "Tue, 12 Sep 2017 12:12:08 -0000",
        "comment": "Updated version"
    },
    {
        "id": 34,
        "created": "Fri, 08 Sep 2017 17:07:46 -0000",
        "comment": null
    }
]

MAAS keeps a history of all uploaded script versions, allowing you to easily revert to a previous version using the id of the version you wish to revert to:

maas $PROFILE node-script revert $SCRIPT_NAME to=$VERSION_ID

Warning: The history for later modifications will be lost when reverting to an earlier version of the script.

To download a script, enter the following:

maas $PROFILE node-script download $SCRIPT_NAME > $LOCAL_FILENAME

To delete a script, use delete:

maas $PROFILE node-script delete $SCRIPT_NAME

How to use tags to group commissioning and testing scripts

Tags make scripts easier to manage; grouping scripts together for commissioning and testing, for example:

maas $PROFILE node-script add-tag $SCRIPT_NAME tag=$TAG
maas $PROFILE node-script remove-tag $SCRIPT_NAME tag=$TAG

MAAS runs all commissioning scripts by default. However, you can select which custom scripts to run during commissioning by name or tag:

maas $PROFILE machine commission \
 commissioning_scripts=$SCRIPT_NAME,$SCRIPT_TAG

You can also select which testing scripts to run by name or tag:

maas $PROFILE machine commission \
 testing_scripts=$SCRIPT_NAME,$SCRIPT_TAG

Any testing scripts tagged with commissioning will also run during commissioning.

How to view testing results

The command line allows you to not only view the current script’s progress but also retrieve the verbatim output from any previous runs too.

If you only want to see the latest or currently-running result, you can use current-commissioning, current-testing, or current-installation instead of an id:

maas $PROFILE node-script-result read $SYSTEM_ID $RESULTS

You can also limit which results are returned by type (commissioning, testing, or installation), script name, or script run:

maas $PROFILE node-script-results read \
 $SYSTEM_ID type=$SCRIPT_TYPE filters=$SCRIPT_NAME,$TAGS

You can also suppress failed results, which is useful if you want to ignore a known failure:

maas $PROFILE node-script-results update \
 $SYSTEM_ID type=$SCRIPT_TYPE filters=$SCRIPT_NAME,$TAGS suppressed=$SUPPRESSED

where $SUPPRESSED is either True or False. The JSON formatted output to the above command will include ‘results’ dictionary with an entry for suppressed:

"results": [
    {
        "id": 21,
        "created": "Tue, 02 Apr 2019 17:00:36 -0000",
        "updated": "Tue, 02 Apr 2019 20:56:41 -0000",
        "name": "smartctl-validate",
        "status": 5,
        "status_name": "Aborted",
        "exit_status": null,
        "started": "Tue, 02 Apr 2019 20:56:41 -0000",
        "ended": "Tue, 02 Apr 2019 20:56:41 -0000",
        "runtime": "0:00:00",
        "starttime": 1554238601.765214,
        "endtime": 1554238601.765214,
        "estimated_runtime": "0:00:00",
        "parameters": {
            "storage": {
                "argument_format": "{path}",
                "type": "storage",
                "value": {
                    "id_path": "/dev/vda",
                    "model": "",
                    "name": "sda",
                    "physical_blockdevice_id": 1,
                    "serial": ""
                }
            }
        },
        "script_id": 1,
        "script_revision_id": null,
        "suppressed": true
    }
]

Finally, results can be downloaded, either to stdout, stderr, as combined output or as a tar.xz:

maas $PROFILE node-script-result download $SYSTEM_ID $RUN_ID output=all \
 filetype=tar.xz > $LOCAL_FILENAME

$RUN_ID is labelled id in the verbose result output.

See Commissioning Scripts Reference for more details on how these scripts work and how you can write your own.

MAAS can check whether links are connected or disconnected, so that you can detect unplugged cables. If you are not running MAAS 2.7, you must first upgrade and then recommission your machines to find disconnected links. MAAS not only reports unplugged cables, but also gives a warning when trying to configure a disconnected interface. In addition, administrators can change the cable connection status after manually resolving the issue.

To check network testing results, enter the following command:

maas $PROFILE interfaces read $SYSTEM_ID \
| jq -r '(["LINK_NAME","LINK_CONNECTED?","LINK_SPEED", "I/F_SPEED"]
| (., map(length*"-"))), (.[] | [.name, .link_connected, .link_speed, .interface_speed])
| @tsv' | column -t

which produces an output similar to this:

LINK_NAME  LINK_CONNECTED?  LINK_SPEED  I/F_SPEED
---------  ---------------  ----------  ---------
ens3       false            -           1 Gpbs

From this screen, you can see that the ens3 link is not connected (hence an unreported link speed).

Once you have manually repaired the broken connection, an administrator can change cable connection status:

maas $PROFILE interface update $SYSTEM_ID $INTERFACE_ID link_connected=true

As servers and hardware get faster, the chances increase that you might encounter a speed mismatch when connecting your NIC to a network device. MAAS can warn you if your interface is connected to a link slower than what the interface supports, when you run the above command:

maas $PROFILE interfaces read $SYSTEM_ID \
| jq -r '(["LINK_NAME","LINK_CONNECTED?","LINK_SPEED", "I/F_SPEED"]
| (., map(length*"-"))), (.[] | [.name, .link_connected, .link_speed, .interface_speed])
| @tsv' | column -t

From the resulting output, you can detect when your link/interface speeds are slower than expected. Depending on your physical hardware, the problem may not be repairable, but once you identify a slow link, you can replace a slow switch without recommissioning.

Administrators can change or update the link and interface speeds after manual changes
to the connection:

maas $PROFILE interface update $SYSTEM_ID $INTERFACE_ID link_speed=$NEW_LINK_SPEED \
interface_speed=$NEW_INTERFACE_SPEED

How to configure network validation and testing scripts

MAAS allows you to configure network connectivity testing in a number of ways. If MAAS can’t connect to the rack controller, deployment can’t complete. MAAS can check connectivity to the rack controller and warn you if there’s no link, long before you have to try and debug it. For example, if you can’t connect to your gateway controller, traffic can’t leave your network.

Users can now test their network configuration to check for:

  1. Interfaces which have a broken network configuration
  2. Bonds that are not fully operational
  3. Broken gateways, rack controllers, and Internet links

In addition, MAAS can comprehensively test Internet connectivity testing. You can give a list of URLs or IP addresses to check:

In the ephemeral environment, standard DHCP is still applied, but when network testing runs, MAAS can apply your specific configuration for the duration of the test. While all URLs / IPs are tested with all interfaces, MAAS can test each of your interfaces individually, including breaking apart bonded NICS and testing each side of your redundant interfaces. You can also run different tests on each pass, e.g., a different set of URLs, although each run would be a different testing cycle.

To test individual interfaces, for example, you could issue the following command:

Note that in this command, we are testing internet connectivity to the single interface “br0.”

How to customise network testing

MAAS allow you to customise network testing according to your needs. You can create your own commissioning scripts and tests related to networking, and you can run them during the network testing portion of the MAAS workflow.

There are no particular restrictions on these scripts, so you can test a wide variety of possible conditions and situations. Administrators can upload network tests and test scripts. Administrators can also create tests which accept an interface parameter, or scripts which apply custom network configurations.

Users can specify unique parameters using the API, override machines which fail network testing (allowing their use), and suppress individual failed network tests. Users can also review the health status from all interface tests, even sorting them by interface name and MAC. In addition, MAAS can report the overall status of all interfaces.