How to use LXD (snap/3.1/UI)

2.9 3.0 3.1
DEB CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI
SNAP CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI

Before diving into the documentation, if you would like to try MAAS and LXD directly on your laptop or PC, try out our MAAS and LXD tutorial.

LXD and MAAS are separate products, and it’s useful to allow them to interact as equals, covering a much wider range of use cases. To allow each of them to follow their own operational models, but still allow them to work together, we’ve taken advantage of LXD projects.

How to make LXD available for VM hosting

Assuming that you want to use LXD VM hosts, you need to install the correct version of LXD. Prior to the release of Ubuntu 20.04 LXD was installed using Debian packages. The Debian packaged version of LXD is too old to use with MAAS. If this is the case, you’ll need to remove the LXD Debian packages and install the Snap version. Note that you cannot install both Debian and snap versions, as this creates a conflict.

How to remove older versions of LXD

If you’re on a version of Ubuntu older than 20.04, or you have the Debian version of LXD, start the uninstall process with the following command:

sudo apt-get purge -y *lxd* *lxc*

This command should result in output that looks something like this:

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree      
Reading state information... Done
Note, selecting 'lxde-core' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'python-pylxd-doc' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'python3-pylxd' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'python-nova-lxd' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxde-common' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxde-icon-theme' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxde-settings-daemon' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxde' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxdm' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxd' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxd-tools' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'python-pylxd' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxdm-dbg' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxde-session' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'nova-compute-lxd' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'openbox-lxde-session' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'python-nova.lxd' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'lxd-client' for glob '*lxd*'
Note, selecting 'openbox-lxde-session' instead of 'lxde-session'
Note, selecting 'lxctl' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'lxc-common' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'python3-lxc' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'libclxclient-dev' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'lxc-templates' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'lxc1' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'lxc-dev' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'lxc' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'liblxc1' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'lxc-utils' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'vagrant-lxc' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'libclxclient3' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'liblxc-dev' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'nova-compute-lxc' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'python-lxc' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'liblxc-common' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'golang-gopkg-lxc-go-lxc.v2-dev' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'lxcfs' for glob '*lxc*'
Note, selecting 'liblxc-common' instead of 'lxc-common'
Package 'golang-gopkg-lxc-go-lxc.v2-dev' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'libclxclient-dev' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'libclxclient3' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxc-templates' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxctl' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxde' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxde-common' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxde-core' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxde-icon-theme' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxde-settings-daemon' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxdm' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxdm-dbg' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'openbox-lxde-session' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'python-lxc' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'python3-lxc' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'vagrant-lxc' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'liblxc-dev' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxc-dev' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'nova-compute-lxc' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'nova-compute-lxd' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'python-nova-lxd' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'python-pylxd' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'python-pylxd-doc' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxc' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxc-utils' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxc1' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'lxd-tools' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'python-nova.lxd' is not installed, so not removed
Package 'python3-pylxd' is not installed, so not removed
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  dns-root-data dnsmasq-base ebtables libuv1 uidmap xdelta3
Use 'sudo apt autoremove' to remove them.
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  liblxc-common* liblxc1* lxcfs* lxd* lxd-client*
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 5 to remove and 21 not upgraded.
After this operation, 34.1 MB disk space will be freed.
(Reading database ... 67032 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing lxd (3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
Removing lxd dnsmasq configuration
Removing lxcfs (3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2) ...
Removing lxd-client (3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
Removing liblxc-common (3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
Removing liblxc1 (3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.8.3-2ubuntu0.1) ...
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.27-3ubuntu1) ...
(Reading database ... 66786 files and directories currently installed.)
Purging configuration files for liblxc-common (3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
Purging configuration files for lxd (3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
Purging configuration files for lxcfs (3.0.3-0ubuntu1~18.04.2) ...
Processing triggers for systemd (237-3ubuntu10.40) ...
Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-21) ...

You should also autoremove packages no longer needed by LXD:

$ sudo apt-get autoremove -y

Output from this command should be similar to:

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree      
Reading state information... Done
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  dns-root-data dnsmasq-base ebtables libuv1 uidmap xdelta3
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 6 to remove and 21 not upgraded.
After this operation, 1860 kB disk space will be freed.
(Reading database ... 66769 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing dns-root-data (2018013001) ...
Removing dnsmasq-base (2.79-1) ...
Removing ebtables (2.0.10.4-3.5ubuntu2.18.04.3) ...
Removing libuv1:amd64 (1.18.0-3) ...
Removing uidmap (1:4.5-1ubuntu2) ...
Removing xdelta3 (3.0.11-dfsg-1ubuntu1) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.8.3-2ubuntu0.1) ...
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.27-3ubuntu1) ...

Now install LXD from the Snap:

$ sudo snap install lxd
2020-05-20T22:02:57Z INFO Waiting for restart...
lxd 4.1 from Canonical✓ installed

R\How to refresh LXD on 20.04

If you are on 20.04 or above LXD should be installed by default, but it’s a good idea to make sure it’s up to date:

$ sudo snap refresh
All snaps up to date.

How to initialise LXD prior to use

Once LXD is installed it needs to be configured with lxd init before first use:

$ sudo lxd init

Your interactive output should look something like the following. Note a few points important points about these questions:

  1. Would you like to use LXD clustering? (yes/no) [default=no]: no - MAAS does not currently support LXD clusters.

  2. Name of the storage back-end to use (btrfs, dir, lvm, zfs, ceph) [default=zfs]: dir - testing has primarily been with dir; other options should work, but less testing has been done, so use at your own risk.

  3. Would you like to connect to a MAAS server? (yes/no) [default=no]: no - When LXD is connected to MAAS containers or virtual machines created by LXD will be automatically added to MAAS as devices. This feature should work, but has limited testing thus far.

  4. Would you like to configure LXD to use an existing bridge or host interface? (yes/no) [default=no]: yes - The bridge LXD creates is isolated and not managed by MAAS. If this bridge is used, you would be able to add the LXD VM host and compose virtual machines, but commissioning, deploying, and any other MAAS action which uses the network will fail – so yes is the correct answer here.

  5. Name of the existing bridge or host interface: br0 - br0 is the name of the bridge the user configured (see sections above) which is connected to a MAAS-managed network.

  6. Trust password for new clients: - This is the password the user will enter when connecting with MAAS.

Would you like to use LXD clustering? (yes/no) [default=no]: no
Do you want to configure a new storage pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]: yes
Name of the new storage pool [default=default]:  
Name of the storage back-end to use (btrfs, dir, lvm, zfs, ceph) [default=zfs]: dir
Would you like to connect to a MAAS server? (yes/no) [default=no]: no
Would you like to create a new local network bridge? (yes/no) [default=yes]: no
Would you like to configure LXD to use an existing bridge or host interface? (yes/no) [default=no]: yes
Name of the existing bridge or host interface: br0
Would you like LXD to be available over the network? (yes/no) [default=no]: yes
Address to bind LXD to (not including port) [default=all]:
Port to bind LXD to [default=8443]:
Trust password for new clients:
Again:
Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically? (yes/no) [default=yes]
Would you like a YAML "lxd init" preseed to be printed? (yes/no) [default=no]:

After initialising LXD, you will also want to make sure that LXD is not trying to provide DHCP for the new local network bridge. You can check this with the following command:

lxc network show lxdbr0

If you didn’t accept the default bridge name (lxdbr0), substitute your name for that new bridge in the command above. This will produce output something like this:

config:
  dns.mode: managed
  ipv4.address: 10.146.214.1/24
  ipv4.dhcp: "true"
  ipv4.nat: "true"
  ipv6.address: fd42:c560:ee59:bb2::1/64
  ipv6.dhcp: "true"
  ipv6.nat: "true"
description: ""
name: lxdbr0
type: bridge
used_by:
- /1.0/profiles/default
managed: true
status: Created
locations:
- none

There is a quick tutorial on the possible settings here. For simplicity, to turn off LXD-provided DHCP, you need to change three settings, as follows:

lxc network set lxdbr0 dns.mode=none
lxc network set lxdbr0 ipv4.dhcp=false
lxc network set lxdbr0 ipv6.dhcp=false

You can check your work by repeating the show command:

$ lxc network show lxdbr0
config:
  dns.mode: none
  ipv4.address: 10.146.214.1/24
  ipv4.dhcp: "false"
  ipv4.nat: "true"
  ipv6.address: fd42:c560:ee59:bb2::1/64
  ipv6.dhcp: "false"
  ipv6.nat: "true"
description: ""
name: lxdbr0
type: bridge
used_by:
- /1.0/profiles/default
managed: true
status: Created
locations:
- none

Once that’s done, the LXD host is now ready to be added to MAAS as an LXD VM host. Upon adding the VM host, its own commissioning information will be refreshed.

When composing a virtual machine with LXD, MAAS uses either the ‘maas’ LXD profile, or (if that doesn’t exist) the ‘default’ LXD profile. The profile is used to determine which bridge to use. Users may also add additional LXD options to the profile which are not yet supported in MAAS.

About LXD projects and MAAS

It may be beneficial to understand how LXD projects fit into the overall MAAS ecosystem. LXD projects are not intended to be MAAS projects; they are only intended to limit which LXD containers and VMs are available to MAAS. This section will tell you:

About LXD projects

LXD projects are a feature of the LXD lightweight container hypervisor – a next-generation container manager which makes containers as easy to manage as virtual machines. With LXD, you can create lots of containers, providing different services across many different use cases. As a result of this flexibility, it can become confusing to keep track of exactly which containers are providing what services to answer which use case.

To help with this potential confusion, LXD provides a “projects” feature, which allows you to group one or more containers together into related projects. These projects can be manipulated and managed with the same lxc tool used to manage the containers and virtual machines themselves.

Since MAAS makes use of LXD as a VM host, it’s useful to be able to manipulate and manage projects not only through MAAS, but also directly through LXD. In fact, to properly scope MAAS access to your LXD resources, it’s essential that you understand how to use LXD projects in some detail.

About design choices

Prior versions of MAAS implemented LXD VM hosts, but did so in a strongly-coupled way; that is, MAAS essentially took control of the VMs, disallowing or overriding some direct LXD controls. In a sense, MAAS became the owner, rather than simply a separate program, communicating interdependently with LXD to accomplish user purposes.

This was less than ideal. For example, MAAS would discover all running LXD VMs and immediately commission them, essentially performing a “clean install” and wiping out their contents. This behaviour isn’t suitable when MAAS is connected to a deployed LXD with VMs already running services that may not have been targeted for enlistment by MAAS.

With the release of MAAS 3.0 version, MAAS now becomes a LXD tenant, rather than an owner.

As you can infer from some of the discussion above, MAAS and LXD are separate products. It’s beneficial for them to interact, but not if one product cannot be controlled and managed independently of the other. The combination of MAAS and LXD can cover a much broader set of use cases between them if they act as independent tools. While the most loosely-coupled model would have MAAS selecting individual VMs, that model isn’t compatible with how MAAS works with other networks and devices, so we chose to implement projects as a way to section off LXD VMs for normal use by MAAS.

MAAS now controls VMs at a project level

Essentially, MAAS still commissions any VMs it discovers within a VM host, but the scope of the discovery is now limited to a single project. That project can contain any subset of the existing VMs, from zero to all of them. Any VM that’s already in a project assigned to MAAS will still be re-commissioned, which is the normal behaviour of MAAS upon network discovery.

Here are the criteria which drove this decision:

  • It should be possible for an administrator to select which project(s) MAAS manages, and thus which machines will be automatically enlisted and commissioned.
  • It should be possible for MAAS to create and self-assign a new (empty) project, so that the user can compose new VMs within LXD from within the MAAS interface.
  • No per-project features should be enabled by default in MAAS-created projects.
  • The project must be explicitly specified when creating the LXD VM host.
  • When a LXD VM host is added, only the existing VMs assigned to the selected project (if any) should be visible to MAAS (and thus, automatically commissioned), and VMs in non-MAAS projects are not affected in any way.
  • When a LXD VM host is deleted, the default behaviour should be for MAAS to leave existing VMs, rather than automatically deleting them; VMs in non-MAAS projects are not affected in any way.
  • MAAS will not create VMs in projects that it doesn’t own.
  • When a VM is composed in MAAS, it’s created in the target LXD project.

In addition, a MAAS administrator should be able to:

  • refresh information about a specific LXD VM host, and receive correct, up-to-date, and timely status.
  • explicitly specify connections between networks and VM interfaces.
  • deploy a machine directly as an LXD VM host, connected to MAAS from the outset.

These criteria were fully met in the MAAS LXD tenant implementation released as part of MAAS 3.0.

About alternatives to LXD projects in MAAS

You can see from the discussion above that LXD projects were used primarily to cordon off some LXD VMs from MAAS, to avoid them from being enlisted and commissioned by MAAS (and thus, essentially, destroyed, from an operational perspective). These LXD project features provide some limited capabilities to group machines. Because LXD projects only deal with LXD VMs and VM hosts, they are not a complete or comprehensive set of project tools. MAAS already has those machine grouping capabilities in the form of resource pools.

We realised, though, as we were working with LXD projects, that we could vastly improve the documentation for resource pools in the area of projects and project management. You’ll find significant new material in the resource pools section of the doc. We also realised that it would be helpful to have “real-time tags” for machines, that is, annotations that persist only while a machine is allocated or deployed. These new “tags” are known as workload annotations, and they have also been given a thorough treatment, also with their own page in the left-hand navigation.

An LXD project tutorial

A good understanding of LXD projects is essential for those using LXD VM hosts, especially if you plan to include non-MAAS-controlled VMs in your LXD instance. Normally, we wouldn’t revisit instructions found elsewhere, but because the discussion flows quickly and naturally into MAAS-related usage, it seemed prudent to give a light overview of some basic feature information.

How to list LXD projects

Before you try to manipulate projects, it’s useful to understand how to list them, so that you can check your results as you go. If you’ve successfully installed and initialised lxd, you should be able to list projects. A basic project list can be obtained with the following command:

lxc project list

You should get a listing something like this:

+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default (current)   | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

Note that this particular instantiation of LXD has two projects: the default project (which generally always exists in LXD), and a project called pg-basebackup-tests which is already managed by MAAS.

There is a column labelled USED BY, which tabulates the number of entities contained within the project. There isn’t a project-related command to get a list of the containers and VMs within a project. Instead, you use the LXC command lxc list:

lxc list

which yields something like the following tabulated listing:

+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
|      NAME       |  STATE  | IPV4 |                    IPV6                     |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| trusty-drake    | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| upward-stallion | RUNNING |      | fd42:ec:5a53:59d2:216:3eff:febf:7fa7 (eth0) | CONTAINER       | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| witty-lizard    | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| crazy-goose     | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| dirty-horse     | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| confused-mouse  | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| uplifting-dog   | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+

How do you know which project you’re listing? The most reliable way is to first list projects and see which one is marked (current), like this:

lxc project list

As you see in the sample output, the currently visible and accessible project is listed as (current) in the project listing:

+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default (current)   | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

We’ll show you how to switch to a different project further along in this tutorial.

How to create a LXD project

Suppose that you’re about to create a MAAS VM host, and you want a specific project named “maas-vm-host-1” for this particular situation. You can create that project with the following command:

$ lxc project create maas-vm-host-1
Project maas-vm-host-1 created

When you check your work with lxc project list, you’ll see that LXD did not automatically switch to the new project:

+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default (current)   | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| maas-vm-host-1      | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

The lxc tool generally does only what you ask, nothing more.

How to delete a LXD project

Now, suppose that you decide you don’t need this project yet. No worries: you can easily delete it like this:

$ lxc project delete maas-vm-host-1
Project maas-vm-host-1 deleted

You can check that it was successfully deleted with the lxc project list command:

+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default (current)   | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

How to rename a LXD project

On the other hand, maybe you didn’t need to actually delete that project, just change the name to maas-vm-host-001, which is what you really wanted in the first place. Consider your original project name, maas-vm-host-1:

+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default (current)   | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| maas-vm-host-1      | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

You can quickly and easily change the project name like this:

$ lxc project rename maas-vm-host-1 maas-vm-host-001
Project maas-vm-host-1 renamed to maas-vm-host-001
$ lxc project list
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default (current)   | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| maas-vm-host-001    | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

From now on, we’ll be combining command output with the command invocation, most of the time.

How to switch between LXD projects

You can choose which LXD project is currently visible and accessible, that is, you can choose which project will be acted on by most of the other project commands. Let’s begin by listing the current projects:

$ lxc project list
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default (current)   | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| maas-vm-host-001    | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

Only the project marked (current) in the project listing can be manipulated, for the most part, with the obvious exceptions of command that take project names (like “create,” “delete,” and so forth). For example, using lxc list to enumerate the names of containers and VMs limits its scope to the current project, which is till “default” at this point:

$ lxc list
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
|      NAME       |  STATE  | IPV4 |                    IPV6                     |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| trusty-drake    | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| upward-stallion | RUNNING |      | fd42:ec:5a53:59d2:216:3eff:febf:7fa7 (eth0) | CONTAINER       | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| witty-lizard    | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| crazy-goose     | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| dirty-horse     | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| confused-mouse  | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| uplifting-dog   | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+

Suppose I want to know what all those “USE BY” things are in that pg-basebackup-tests project? Well, the most straightforward way to get that list is to first switch projects, like this:

lxc project switch pg-basebackup-tests

This command returns nothing if successful (following the old UNIX rule of “no news is good news”). If you now repeat the project list command, like this:

$ lxc project list
+-------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|             NAME              | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+-------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default                       | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+-------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| maas-vm-host-001              | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 1       |
+-------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests (current) | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+-------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

You can see in the above listing that we’ve switched to the “…-tests” project. Now when we do a container list, we’ll see a different set:

$ lxc list
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
|      NAME       |  STATE  | IPV4 |                    IPV6                     |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| whacky-moose    | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| peeved-gerbil   | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| hairy-nutria    | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| mad-crocodile   | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| flirty-possum   | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| angry-armadillo | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| sneaky-snake    | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| happy-catfish   | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| cute-kitten     | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| bombastic-dog   | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| articulate-eel  | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| mobid-owl       | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| drunk-crow      | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| spicy-alligator | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| nice-crawfish   | STOPPED |      |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+

It’s good practice to always switch projects carefully, so you’re not operating in some other project and creating chaos by accident.

How to et a summary of LXD project resources

We said that lxc commands operate on the current project most of the time. We gave that caveat because of commands like lxc project info, which requires a project name to get any usable output. For example, if you just type lxc project info, you’ll just get some “help” output:

$ lxc project info
Description:
  Get a summary of resource allocations

Usage:
  lxc project info [<remote>:]<project> <key> [flags]

Flags:
      --format   Format (csv|json|table|yaml) (default "table")

Global Flags:
      --debug            Show all debug messages
      --force-local      Force using the local unix socket
  -h, --help             Print help
      --project string   Override the source project
  -q, --quiet            Don't show progress information
  -v, --verbose          Show all information messages
      --version          Print version number

You can see from the help listing that a project name is required. Let’s try that again with a fairly large project:

$ lxc project info pg-basebackup-tests
+------------------+-----------+----------+
|     RESOURCE     |   LIMIT   |  USAGE   |
+------------------+-----------+----------+
| CONTAINERS       | UNLIMITED | 0        |
+------------------+-----------+----------+
| CPU              | UNLIMITED | 15       |
+------------------+-----------+----------+
| DISK             | UNLIMITED | 120.00GB |
+------------------+-----------+----------+
| INSTANCES        | UNLIMITED | 15       |
+------------------+-----------+----------+
| MEMORY           | UNLIMITED | 32.21GB  |
+------------------+-----------+----------+
| NETWORKS         | UNLIMITED | 0        |
+------------------+-----------+----------+
| PROCESSES        | UNLIMITED | 0        |
+------------------+-----------+----------+
| VIRTUAL-MACHINES | UNLIMITED | 15       |
+------------------+-----------+----------+

Here we see that the pg-basebackup-tests file has no containers, 15 VMs, 120GB of disk space used, etc. You can do this for any project, even if it’s not the current project, so from where we are here (in the pg-basebackup-tests project), we can still check resources in the default project:

$ lxc project info default
+------------------+-----------+---------+
|     RESOURCE     |   LIMIT   |  USAGE  |
+------------------+-----------+---------+
| CONTAINERS       | UNLIMITED | 1       |
+------------------+-----------+---------+
| CPU              | UNLIMITED | 2       |
+------------------+-----------+---------+
| DISK             | UNLIMITED | 16.00GB |
+------------------+-----------+---------+
| INSTANCES        | UNLIMITED | 3       |
+------------------+-----------+---------+
| MEMORY           | UNLIMITED | 4.29GB  |
+------------------+-----------+---------+
| NETWORKS         | UNLIMITED | 2       |
+------------------+-----------+---------+
| PROCESSES        | UNLIMITED | 0       |
+------------------+-----------+---------+
| VIRTUAL-MACHINES | UNLIMITED | 2       |
+------------------+-----------+---------+

Note that lxc project info requires a project name. As mentioned earlier, typing the command without a project name just gives you a help message, not the stats for the default or current projects.

How to show LXD project options

You’ll remember that the “USED BY” column seemed to list more entities than there were containers or VMs. For example, the default project is “USED BY” seven entities, but only shows three containers or VMs:

$ lxc project list
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default (current)   | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| maas-vm-host-001    | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

You can make more sense of the “USED BY” column, and get a lot more information about your project, by using the lxc project show command:

$ lxc project show default
config:
  features.images: "true"
  features.networks: "true"
  features.profiles: "true"
  features.storage.volumes: "true"
description: Default LXD project
name: default
used_by:
- /1.0/images/9a30ffb2faeea61cce6012c63071a1f1504a76e1dbbe03e575cc313170fdaf43
- /1.0/instances/trusty-drake
- /1.0/instances/upward-stallion
- /1.0/instances/witty-lizard
- /1.0/networks/lxdbr0
- /1.0/networks/lxdbr1
- /1.0/profiles/default

Here you’ll see several categories of information, notably as list of entities that are using this project. For example, there are three VMs/containers, two networks, one image, and the default profile.

What’s really interesting, though, is that the pg-basebackup-tests project is only used by 16 entities – but there are 15 VMs in that project. What’s that discrepancy about? Well, we can find out by showing the options for that project:

$ lxc project show pg-basebackup-tests
config:
  features.images: "false"
  features.profiles: "true"
  features.storage.volumes: "false"
description: Project managed by MAAS
name: pg-basebackup-tests
used_by:
- /1.0/instances/whacky-moose?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/peeved-gerbil?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/hairy-nutria?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/mad-crocodile?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/flirty-possum?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/angry-armadillo?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/sneaky-snake?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/happy-catfish?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/cute-kitten?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/bombastic-dog?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/articulate-eel?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/morbid-owl?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/drunk-crow?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/spicy-alligator?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/instances/nice-crawfish?project=pg-basebackup-tests
- /1.0/profiles/default?project=pg-basebackup-tests

Here you can see that the non-default project contains only a default profile for itself, and the 15 VMs added there. The other entities aren’t needed here, or can be accessed in the default project if required.

How to use LXD projects with MAAS

This subsection will show you:

How to create a new project for MAAS when instantiating a VM host

If you’re using MAAS from the CLI, you’ll want to make sure you’ve generated an API key and logged in before you attempt to create a VM host. These steps are fairly simple; first, you’ll need the MAAS URL, which for this example, is http://192.168.33.91:5240/MAAS. You can find this URL by typing:

$ maas --help

This will return a help string. The correct MAAS API URL is shown in the last entry, “admin:”

usage: maas [-h] COMMAND ...

optional arguments:
  -h, --help      show this help message and exit

drill down:
  COMMAND
    login         Log in to a remote API, and remember its description and credentials.
    logout        Log out of a remote API, purging any stored credentials.
    list          List remote APIs that have been logged-in to.
    refresh       Refresh the API descriptions of all profiles.
    init          Initialise MAAS in the specified run mode.
    config        View or change controller configuration.
    status        Status of controller services.
    migrate       Perform migrations on connected database.
    apikey        Used to manage a user's API keys. Shows existing keys unless --generate or --delete
                  is passed.
    configauth    Configure external authentication.
    createadmin   Create a MAAS administrator account.
    changepassword
                  Change a MAAS user's password.
    admin         Interact with http://192.168.33.91:5240/MAAS/api/2.0/

Next, you’ll need to generate the API key for your administrative user. You can this by entering the following at the command line:

$ sudo maas apikey --generate --username admin
[sudo] password for $USERNAME:

This will return only the API key, which looks something like this:

PPWQWHs75G6rRmhgdQ:mskfQUYsSqBQnfCYC8:ZruUD3EmnQyhRLapR5whY4bV4h8n7zr7

Having both of these, you can login with the following command:

$ maas login admin http://192.168.33.91:5240/MAAS/api/2.0
API key (leave empty for anonymous access): PPWQWHs75G6rRmhgdQ:mskfQUYsSqBQnfCYC8:ZruUD3EmnQyhRLapR5whY4bV4h8n7zr7

Note in this example, you could cut and paste both the MAAS API URL and the API key into the command, at appropriate points. When you log in successfully, you will obtain a help listing something like this:


You are now logged in to the MAAS server at
http://192.168.33.91:5240/MAAS/api/2.0/ with the profile name 'admin'.

For help with the available commands, try:

  maas admin --help

Now that you’re logged in, you can create a new KVM with the following maas $PROFILE vmhosts create command:

$ maas admin vmhosts create --help
usage: maas admin vmhosts create [--help] [-d] [-k] [data [data ...]]

Create a VM host


This method accepts keyword arguments.  Pass each argument as a
key-value pair with an equals sign between the key and the value:
key1=value1 key2=value key3=value3.  Keyword arguments must come after
any positional arguments.

Create or discover a new VM host.

:param type: Required.  The type of VM host to create:
``lxd`` or ``virsh``.
:type type: String

 :param power_address: Required.  Address that gives
MAAS access to the VM host power control. For example, for virsh
``qemu+ssh://172.16.99.2/system``
For ``lxd``, this is just the address of the host.
:type power_address: String

 :param power_user: Required.  Username to use for
power control of the VM host. Required for ``virsh``
VM hosts that do not have SSH set up for public-key authentication.
:type power_user: String

 :param power_pass: Required.  Password to use for
power control of the VM host. Required ``virsh`` VM hosts that do
not have SSH set up for public-key authentication and for ``lxd``
if the MAAS certificate is not registered already in the LXD server.
:type power_pass: String

 :param name: Optional.  The new VM host's name.
:type name: String

 :param zone: Optional.  The new VM host's zone.
:type zone: String

 :param pool: Optional.  The name of the resource
pool the new VM host will belong to. Machines composed from this VM host
will be assigned to this resource pool by default.
:type pool: String

 :param tags: Optional.  A tag or list of tags (
comma delimited) to assign to the new VM host.
:type tags: String

 :param project: Optional.  For ``lxd`` VM hosts, the
project that MAAS will manage. If not provided, the ``default`` project
will be used. If a nonexistent name is given, a new project with that
name will be created.
:type project: String


Common command-line options:
    --help, -h
	Show this help message and exit.
    -d, --debug
	Display more information about API responses.
    -k, --insecure
	Disable SSL certificate check
stormrider@wintermute:~$ maas admin vmho

In the case of our example server, you’d type:

$ maas admin vmhosts create type=lxd power_address=10.196.199.1:8443 project=keystone name=foo

You’d be greeted with a success result that looks something like this:

Success.
Machine-readable output follows:
{
    "host": {
        "system_id": "hybned",
        "__incomplete__": true
    },
    "storage_pools": [
        {
            "id": "default",
            "name": "default",
            "type": "dir",
            "path": "/var/snap/lxd/common/lxd/storage-pools/default",
            "total": 248618848256,
            "used": 0,
            "available": 248618848256,
            "default": true
        },
        {
            "id": "default2",
            "name": "default2",
            "type": "dir",
            "path": "/var/snap/lxd/common/lxd/storage-pools/default2",
            "total": 248618848256,
            "used": 0,
            "available": 248618848256,
            "default": false
        }
    ],
    "type": "lxd",
    "used": {
        "cores": 0,
        "memory": 0,
        "local_storage": 0
    },
    "zone": {
        "name": "default",
        "description": "",
        "id": 1,
        "resource_uri": "/MAAS/api/2.0/zones/default/"
    },
    "total": {
        "cores": 0,
        "memory": 0,
        "local_storage": 497237696512
    },
    "tags": [
        "pod-console-logging"
    ],
    "architectures": [
        "amd64/generic"
    ],
    "available": {
        "cores": 0,
        "memory": 0,
        "local_storage": 497237696512
    },
    "pool": {
        "name": "default",
        "description": "Default pool",
        "id": 0,
        "resource_uri": "/MAAS/api/2.0/resourcepool/0/"
    },
    "default_macvlan_mode": null,
    "name": "foo",
    "version": "4.13",
    "id": 26,
    "memory_over_commit_ratio": 1.0,
    "cpu_over_commit_ratio": 1.0,
    "capabilities": [
        "composable",
        "dynamic_local_storage",
        "over_commit",
        "storage_pools"
    ],
    "resource_uri": "/MAAS/api/2.0/vm-hosts/26/"
}

Note that we specified the project keystone as part of this creation step. We can now check the LXD project list and see if we did, in fact, create that project:

$ lxc project list
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default             | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 5       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| keystone            | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| maas_vm_host_001    | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| new_project         | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| not-maas (current)  | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 3       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

Finally, we can switch to the project to get a detailed look:

$ lxc project switch keystone
$ lxc list
+------+-------+------+------+------+-----------+
| NAME | STATE | IPV4 | IPV6 | TYPE | SNAPSHOTS |
+------+-------+------+------+------+-----------+

You’ll note that, since we just created the VM host, without adding any VMs, the keystone project will be empty.

How to create a new VM in the LXD project associated with a VM host

Let’s say that you have created your VM host (called foo, in this case) with a new, empty project called keystone. Now you want to create (that is, compose) a VM is this project. You can accomplish this with a command similar to the following:

maas admin vmhost compose 26

The VM host ID is found from the resource_uri line of the JSON output that was returned when you created the VM host; in this case, that line looks like this, yielding the ID number 26:

    "resource_uri": "/MAAS/api/2.0/vm-hosts/26/"

MAAS will create (compose) the VM and immediately commission it. You can see this by executing the following command:

maas admin machines read wx8xcr | grep status_name

In this example, we’re using the system ID returned as the resource_uri of the composed VM that was returned in the JSON from the maas admin vmhost compose command above. We recieve output similar to the following:

    "network_test_status_name": "Unknown",
    "testing_status_name": "Passed",
    "status_name": "Ready",
    "commissioning_status_name": "Passed",
    "other_test_status_name": "Unknown",
    "storage_test_status_name": "Passed",
    "interface_test_status_name": "Unknown",
    "cpu_test_status_name": "Unknown",
    "memory_test_status_name": "Unknown",

You can see by the several status messages that this machine was successfully commissioned, sitting now in the ready state.

So from this experiment, we can see that creating (composing) a VM in a VM host causes MAAS to automatically commission the VM.

How to move an existing VM into the LXD project associated with a VM host

We’ve seen what happens if we compose a VM in a VM host – it’s automatically commissioned. But what if we move an existing VM into a LXD project that’s associated with a MAAS VM host? Let’s try it and see.

First, let’s check on an existing VM in one of our other projects:

$ lxc project switch not-maas
$ lxc list
+-----------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
|      NAME       |  STATE  | IPV4 | IPV6 |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
| trusty-drake    | STOPPED |      |      | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
| upward-stallion | STOPPED |      |      | CONTAINER       | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
$ lxc move trusty-drake trusty-drake --project not-maas --target-project keystone
$ lxc project switch keystone
$ lxc list
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
|     NAME     |  STATE  | IPV4 | IPV6 |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
| handy-sloth  | STOPPED |      |      | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
| trusty-drake | STOPPED |      |      | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+

We can check the status with MAAS, but we’ll find that the machine isn’t recognized. If we turn it on, it will be enlisted by MAAS. Since MAAS doesn’t know about it yet, we need to turn it on with the following command:

lxc start trusty-drake

Nothing happens for a while, but eventually MAAS will discover the machine and attempt to commission it. In fact, since MAAS doesn’t know what power type to use, it completes all the commissioning scripts except 30-maas-01-bmc-config:

Name Tags Result Date Runtime
20-maas-01-install-lldpd node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:22 0:00:00
20-maas-02-dhcp-unconfigured-ifaces node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:22 0:00:00
30-maas-01-bmc-config bmc-config, node Skipped Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:22 0:00:00
50-maas-01-commissioning node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:23 0:00:00
maas-capture-lldpd node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:43:17 0:00:53
maas-get-fruid-api-data node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:26 0:00:00
maas-kernel-cmdline node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:25 0:00:01
maas-list-modaliases node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:25 0:00:00
maas-lshw node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:26 0:00:02
maas-serial-ports node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:24 0:00:00
maas-support-info node Passed Mon, 19 Apr. 2021 21:42:25 0:00:01

This machine will sit in the “New” state until you assign it a power type, and enter the correct power parameters.

For example, to get this new (moved) VM ready to be fully commissioned, you’ll need to first find it in the machine list:

maas admin machines read
(lots of JSON output, down to the last line)
  "resource_uri": "/MAAS/api/2.0/machines/r3mmsh/"
'''

<a href="#heading--projects-s2-delete-vm-host"><h3 id="heading--projects-s2-delete-vm-host">How to delete the VM host</h3></a>

At some point, you may want to delete your MAAS VM host.  You can do so in the following way:

<a href="#heading--projects-s2-move-non-maas-items"><h3 id="heading--projects-s2-move-non-maas-items">How to move LXD entities to another project to hide them from MAAS</h3></a>

Suppose that want to use MAAS with your default LXD project, and that you have a couple of LXD entities in your default project that you don't want to use with MAAS:

```nohighlight
$ lxc list
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
|      NAME       |  STATE  |         IPV4          |                    IPV6                     |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| trusty-drake    | STOPPED |                       |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| upward-stallion | RUNNING | 10.196.199.194 (eth0) | fd42:ec:5a53:59d2:216:3eff:febf:7fa7 (eth0) | CONTAINER       | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| witty-lizard    | STOPPED |                       |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+

In the above example, you want to use witty-lizard with MAAS, but you want to move the other two entities to a project called not-maas. To accomplish this, you first need to create the not-maas project if it doesn’t exist:

$ lxc project create not-maas
Project not-maas created
$ lxc project list
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
|        NAME         | IMAGES | PROFILES | STORAGE VOLUMES | NETWORKS |       DESCRIPTION       | USED BY |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| default (current)   | YES    | YES      | YES             | YES      | Default LXD project     | 7       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| maas_vm_host_001    | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| not-maas            | YES    | YES      | YES             | NO       |                         | 1       |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+
| pg-basebackup-tests | NO     | YES      | NO              | NO       | Project managed by MAAS | 16      |
+---------------------+--------+----------+-----------------+----------+-------------------------+---------+

Having done so, you now want to move trusty-drake and upward-stallion to a new project. Let’s tackle trusty-drake first:

$ lxc move trusty-drake trusty-drake --project default --target-project not-maas --verbose
$ lxc list
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
|      NAME       |  STATE  |         IPV4          |                    IPV6                     |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| upward-stallion | RUNNING | 10.196.199.194 (eth0) | fd42:ec:5a53:59d2:216:3eff:febf:7fa7 (eth0) | CONTAINER       | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| witty-lizard    | STOPPED |                       |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
$ lxc project switch not-maas
$ lxc list
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
|     NAME     |  STATE  | IPV4 | IPV6 |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
| trusty-drake | STOPPED |      |      | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+

It’s important to note that the move step may take 30 seconds or more; that’s normal.

Next, let’s try moving upward-stallion, which is a running container:

$ lxc move upward-stallion upward-stallion --project default --target-project not-maas --verbose
Error: Failed creating instance record: Failed initialising instance: Invalid devices: Failed detecting root disk device: No root device could be found
$ lxc list
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
|      NAME       |  STATE  |         IPV4          |                    IPV6                     |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| upward-stallion | RUNNING | 10.196.199.216 (eth0) | fd42:ec:5a53:59d2:216:3eff:fe64:a206 (eth0) | CONTAINER       | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| witty-lizard    | STOPPED |                       |                                             | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+-----------------------+---------------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+

Hmm, what’s that error message about? Well, you actually need to add the default storage pool to the mix, with this command:

lxc profile device add default root disk path=/ pool=default

Having done so, you can try the move again:

$ lxc move upward-stallion upward-stallion --project default --target-project not-maas --verbose
$ lxc list                            
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
|     NAME     |  STATE  | IPV4 | IPV6 |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
| witty-lizard | STOPPED |      |      | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+--------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
$ lxc project switch not-maas
$ lxc list
+-----------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
|      NAME       |  STATE  | IPV4 | IPV6 |      TYPE       | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
| trusty-drake    | STOPPED |      |      | VIRTUAL-MACHINE | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+
| upward-stallion | STOPPED |      |      | CONTAINER       | 0         |
+-----------------+---------+------+------+-----------------+-----------+

The move succeeds this time – with an important distinction: the compartment upward-stallion was STOPPED by lxc during the move. This is an important planning consideration when you’re trying to create MAAS VMs & VM hosts in an already-active LXD instantiation.